The History of the Urdu Language

 

The History of the Urdu Language

The year 2022 is vital regarding Urdu news coverage this year, the mediation of the Urdu language is finishing 200 years of its life. On March 27, 1822, the main Urdu paper “Jam Jahan Nama” was distributed in Calcutta. Therefore, the month of March is the bicentennial month of Urdu companionship people of Urdu and especially Urdu journalists should celebrate two centuries of Urdu friendship this year although ‘Jam Jahan Nama’ has been declared the first Urdu newspaper, there is a controversy in this regard some people say that Tipu Sultan’s   ‘Fuji’ newspaper was the first Urdu newspaper.

But no file was found. A researcher of Urdu companionship. D. In his book ‘Jam Jahan Nama’, Chandan quotes Prof. Mahmood Hassan, former President of the Department of Urdu, University of Mysore and former Director, Tipu Sultan Research Institute, Sriranga Putnam, Mysore, as saying that people are like that.

Tipu Sultan Shaheed has good intentions that sometimes he works from the beginning and sometimes he covers up the truth. They had no printing press and no military newspaper these edicts were issued in Persian, Kunar, and Marathi it may have been considered a newspaper. (Letter to the author) similarly, some people claim that the first Urdu newspaper was started in 1810 by Maulvi Ikram Ali from Calcutta and its name was ‘Urdu Newspaper’ this is also stated in Akhtar Shahenshahi, the first non-governmental directory of Urdu newspapers in India, which started in Lucknow in 1888 the idea of ​​this newspaper is the first Urdu newspaper was suggested by a writer Syed Muhammad Athar. (Nadeem Sitapur) But no file of this newspaper exists anywhere. GD Sandalwood denies the allegations. According to him, ‘Jam Jahan Nama’ was the first Indian or Urdu weekly newspaper to be published in Persian and Urdu languages ​​from the eighth edition. He claims in the book that there is no evidence that Maulvi Ikram Ali’s newspaper was the first in Urdu. He has interpreted this idea well. Prof Tahir Masood, Mushaf of “Urdu Shafaat Nineteenth Century” also referred to Jam Jahan Nama being the largest Urdu newspaper. D. Referring to Chandan’s claim If viewed in this way, there was no tradition of Sahih Sittah in Urdu till 1822 which could be followed.

According to Chandan, the proverb “Jam Jahan Nama” is the proverb of the beginning and foundation of Urdu companionship. Qiblah Urdu Sahafat from its inception had a rich intellectual heritage of its forefathers and special Parsis of Peshawar, which is a highly developed Kalmi Sahafat, but there is no tradition or precedent for its companionship. Under such circumstances, the professional performance of ‘Jam Jahan Nama’ was exceptional.

Jam Jahan Nama was undoubtedly a small beginning of our Urdu friendship but its boldness, purposefulness, and stubbornness gave it an important place. It was not a revolutionary newspaper, but in the harsh environment of its time, it must have been the first representative of a language whose speakers had no significant inclination towards ‘Akhbar Bani or Matli’. Creating a well-organized and organized newspaper in this language was a difficult and patient experiment that stood on the ground around it and Jam Jahan Nama succeeded in this experiment.

Fifteen years after the lease of Jamia Jahan Nama, fourteen hundred and fifty kilometers from Calcutta, Maulvi Muhammad Bakr, the father of the great writer Maulana Muhammad Hussain Azad, published the Delhi Newspaper in 1837. It was the first Urdu newspaper in Delhi. Later it was renamed ‘Delhi Urdu Newspaper’. Although Maulvi Bakr’s newspaper did not receive much light or guidance from Jam Jahan Nama, it proved to be the first step toward reaching the heights of companionship. How Maulvi Bakr has carried forward this tradition with dignity and courage deserves to be written from scratch. The gap left by his newspaper in the journey of Urdu journalism is still bright today and is a problem for the next generation of Urdu journalists.

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Maulvi Muhammad Bakr and his companions have many privileges. His greatest happiness is the last and greatest event of his life due to which he is at the forefront of journalism. That is, he is the first martyred journalist. History has shown that no journalist has ever been killed for his views there are many famous traditions about his martyrdom. Some have written that after the uprising of 1857, when he handed over the paper to a British officer at the behest of the principal of Delhi College and his friend Mr. Taylor, Taylor accused Maulvi Bakr in Hebrew that if he did not do so.

He was shot dead by a British official. Baz wrote that he was tied to a barrel of a cannon and shot. Baz wrote that he was hanged. But in any case, everyone agrees that he was martyred for failing to protect Mr. Taylor. He had earlier sheltered Taylor in his home, but when the rebels found out, they evicted him and sent him away.

At the same time, Syed Muhammad Khan, the brother of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, took out Syed Al-Akhbar from Delhi. Atiq Siddiqui, the editor of Urdu journalism, wrote in 1857 newspapers and documents that three newspapers Siraj-ul-Akhbar, Delhi Urdu  Akhbar, and Sadiq-ul-Akhbar had been quoted in the National Archives of India concerning 1857 there are numbers in scattered situations the role of Urdu health in India’s war of independence has a privileged status. The draw of Urdu journalists in this field has not come in any other language. Urdu newspapers have the status of pioneer caravan in this regard.

There is a galaxy of Mujahid Urdu journalists in the ranks of freedom fighters including Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulvi Jamaluddin, Munshi Nawal Kishore, Dr. Makand Lal, Maulana Hasrat Mohibani and others Noteworthy. If you want to count the names of newspapers, you need a complete office. Even after the start of the War of Independence, newspapers in other languages ​​did not appear far away. Until the uprising of 1857, the condition of English newspapers was such that they kept demanding the government close down the local newspapers.

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Maulana Abul Kalam Azad’s newspaper Al-Hilal cannot be ignored. When he issued Al-Hilal on July 13, 1912, it proved to be a revolutionary miracle within a few days, the whole country resounded with his voice. But Al-Hilal was not a newspaper of the people but a newspaper of Indian Muslims. He turned the bright spark of freedom in the hearts of a certain class into a show he also celebrated the contemporary leaders and talked to the elders in such a way that they woke up According to Sarhadi Gandhi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, he entered Khazar politics due to Al-Hilal and Zamindar’s nausea. Maulana Hafiz-ur-Rehman says that Al-Hilal instilled in me the taste of politics.

According to Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Abul Kalam woke us all up by blowing the tune of Al-Hilal. Syed Ataullah Shah Bukhari says that  Al-Hilal taught me titles, taught me politics, and gave me the ability to speak a language.

Abdul Ghaffar’s style of writing was his own, but Hassan al-Tahrir al-Hilali’s pseudonym was “R” however when the country was divided, Urdu journalism was also divided this is also one of the disadvantages of the partition of India Many Urdu journalists migrated to Pakistan and some came to India from Pakistan  ‘Pratap’ and ‘Malap’ are notable among the newspapers coming from Pakistan and popular in India. Pratap was leased by Mahasaya Krishna and later raised by his son Narendra the merger was monopolized by Khushal Chand Khursand and later approved by his son Shri Ranbir both newspapers are still coming out of Delhi.

Both of them have been broadcasting war liberation shows GD Chandan, quoting a speech by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, wrote in his book ‘Urdu Health Journey’ that there were 415 Urdu newspapers in United India at the time of the Partition of India decreased to 345 after partition That is 70 newspapers went to Pakistan. On the other hand, after independence, a large number of Urdu newspapers were published in different cities of the country, of which Baz proved to be the most successful. Some of them died and some are still dying after independence, Urdu newspapers appeared in Delhi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Patna,   Hyderabad, Calcutta, Bangalore, Jammu, and Kashmir.

Three Delhi newspapers Siraj-ul-Akhbar, Delhi Urdu-Akhbar, and Syed-ul-Akhbar have already been mentioned. Apart from this, Pandit Dhar Narayan’s weekly ‘Karan Al-Sadeen’ (1845) and Master Ram Chandra’s weekly ‘Fawad-ul-Nazirin’ (1845) also have their significance. The first Urdu daily from Delhi was published in 1902 under the name ‘Delhi Gazette’ and its editor was Munshi Nisar Ali Shehrat then in 1913 Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar’s weekly ‘Hamdard’ came to the fore which was launched to cover the news of the Balkan War. Shortly before and after 1947, numerous newspapers were published in Delhi including Delhi Gazette, Hamdard, Reyast, Watan, Tej, Malapa, Pratap, Jamiat, Dawat, Wahdat, Iman, Muslim Swaraj, and Ansari Kabul. No reference. Subsequent episodes include People, Foundation, New World, Newspaper, Sail, Your Weekly, Our Step, and then Rashtriya Sahara, Inqilab, Sahat, Akhbar Mashreq, Hindustan Express, Khabardar Jadeed, and Our Society, etc.

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Are noteworthy that Calcutta enjoys a privileged position due to its association with different languages. First Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, and English language newspapers came out of Calcutta as if she is the birthplace or mother-in-law of companionship. However, a long time passed after the closure of Jam Jahan Nama when there was no Urdu newspaper in Calcutta. Then came the brand of 1857 and like in other parts of the country the circulation of Urdu newspapers started in Calcutta.

Elderly journalist Ahmad Malihabadi writes, “Muslims had a great influence and dominance in the social life of Bengal. He was the Nawabi of Murshidabad and Dhaka the Mumtaz family had a tradition of reading and writing Urdu as well as Persian and there was no Hindu-Muslim bond in it. Many Bengalis kept Dastars in Hindu-Urdu to such an extent that they recited Bajabta poetry and how many Bengali Hindu Sahibs passed away this is about the period when neither the British brought Nawab Wajid Ali Shah from Calcutta as a deposed and district homeland nor did they make the last crown prince Bahadur Shah Zafar Zafar Rangoon a homeland after the failure of 1857 uprising.

Had passed through Calcutta. Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib had not yet reached Calcutta in an attempt to get his closed pension from the Governor-General All this happened after the uprising of 1857 in Calcutta. The wind of  Urdu began to blow. (Monthly New Era Lucknow, Urdu Health Number, June-July 2011) but after independence, a very difficult time came for Calcutta’s Urdu journalism as a result of the partition, Bengal was divided into two parts. In this turbulent cycle, the feet of the elders became paralyzed. How many Urdu journalists migrated from Bengal to East Pakistan or West Pakistan?

The owner of Asr Jadeed, an old Calcutta newspaper, which had been circulating since 1923 and had recently become a translator for the Muslim League, sold it to the Karachi newspaper this was the period of Ajami’s affliction for the Urdu Sahih Satta of West Bengal. Then the situation gradually improved and from independence till the end of the last century about thirty dailies came out of West Bengal some of which are still running today and some are closed Uttar Pradesh, the princely state of northern India, has been the cradle of Urdu.

Urdu newspapers have been published there both before and after independence Even after independence, countless newspapers were published in different cities after independence, and countless newspapers from different cities came into circulation   There are many cities in Uttar Pradesh that were considered centers of Urdu companionship many popular newspapers came out of these cities.

After independence, daily newspapers and weekly and monthly magazines were published in many cities. Most of the newspapers and magazines were issued from the capital Lucknow since independence, Tanveer has been the mouthpiece of Muslim League translators throughout Uttar Pradesh. This newspaper strongly advocated the establishment of Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Pakistan.

In its abolition, Pandit   Jawaharlal Nehru, the President of the Indian National Congress, in December 1945, as the Naqib of the Congress  Party, edited the Urdu daily Qaumi Awaaz Hayatullah Ansari became its first editor he recovered in 1937 when he started the weekly ‘Hindustan’ from Lucknow. He was followed by Ishrat Ali Siddiqui and Usman Ghani this newspaper has played an important role in embodying the principles of Urdu journalism. From day one, he vehemently opposed the demand for partition and the establishment of Pakistan he refuted the two-nation ideology in every way.

He became very popular within a few months of his excuse. While Muslims used to read it, on the other hand, it was also read by Hindus, Sindhis, and Punjabis. Other newspapers in Uttar Pradesh may mention Quaid, Azeem, Jadeed Shahra, Odh Bazar,  Pagham Siddique, Siddique Jadeed, Nada Milli, Siyasat Jadeed, Anwar Qom, Mashreq Awaaz, and Aag.

Bihar is proud that journalism there starts with Urdu Sahabat. The first newspaper of this empire was Noorul Anwar which was published in 1853. It was owned by Syed Muhammad Hashim Bulgirami and Mudassar Khurshid Ahmed this was followed by the release of “Harkara” from Patna in 1855 and the release of “Weekly Report” in 1856. After independence, there was a proliferation of Urdu dailies and weekly and fortnightly newspapers in Bihar. These always include Aam, Saathi, Azimabad Express, Qaumi Tanzeem, Hamara Nara, Sara Bihar, Farooqi Tanzeem, and Inqilab  Jadeed, Inqilab, Rashtriya Sahara Kabli Zikr. The daily companion cannot be ignored in these newspapers. It is written by a well-known journalist and novelist like Sohail Azimabadi. But since ‘Mango and Companion’ was not always ‘Saturday’s thing’, confluence, brightness, and authenticity came to the fore to fill this gap.

The first was released by Ghulam Sarwar in 1953. He is called Salar Urdu. The weekly Sangam became a daily in 1962. Ghulam Sarwar has had the highest rank among the emerging journalists in Bihar since independence. He was also a politician but did not enslave the pen to politics. The daily Qaumi Tanzeem started as a first fortnight fast which later became a daily Its founding editor was Syed Muhammad Omar Farid. He is still going. In 1981, the daily Qaumi Awaaz has started in Patna their dinner lasted until 1992 India and the Revolution are considered to be the two oldest newspapers in Mumbai. India’s excuse was used as an evening note. It was released in 1936 by Ghulam Ahmad Khan Arezoo. His hard work and generous experience made India popular India was later turned into a daily. Urdu Times is one of the three oldest newspapers in Mumbai. It is the second oldest newspaper after India. It was released by Abdul Hameed Ansari in 1938 At that time many newspapers were shining on UFUK in Mumbai. But in a short time, they shone in the face of the revolution,, in the beginning, the revolution was two-sided. After 1939, his policy changed. Abdu Hameed Ansari used to make new changes to it An image from a first-class camera was embedded in it on July 23, 1947.

Abdul Hameed Ansari entered politics in 1948 and was elected a member of the Municipal Corporation. Their generous services cannot be ignored. Nowadays this newspaper has been bought by Hindi Media Agency Jagran Group and various editions are being published. Nowadays, the daily ‘Mumbai Urdu News’ is very popular in Karachi due to its fast-paced experiences and fast-paced literature.

Mumbai Weekly Health has a place for Urdu pills released by RK Carnegie. Carnegie was an English colleague. It had just released the English weekly Rosa Blitz. He invented Urdu Blitz in 1964, which continued to disperse until 1996 the first editor of Urdu Blitz was Anwar Azeem, a progressive novelist. Khawaja Ahmad Abbas remained associated with them for a long time.

There was a time when Hind News was published from Chandigarh after independence, independent newspapers came out of Bangalore in which the daily ‘Salar’ and the weekly ‘Nashiman’ established their special identity Salar is a settled and serious newspaper. The weekly Nasheman has been serving for more than half a century It was released by Usman Asad in 1962 under very difficult circumstances The newspaper gained a prominent place in the country with its hard work and dedication. The Chennai-based daily Muslim has been circulating for almost a century and its special feature is that there is still a newspaper-based newspaper here Infectious newspapers are also coming out from other cities of India which cannot be covered in detail Bhopal is also a center of Urdu literature. There are still several newspapers out there. Among them is Kabli Zikr Akhbar Nadeem. Urdu journalism started in 1878 in Bhopal. Nadeem newspaper was published in 1935 and became a daily newspaper in 1938. Since then, many newspapers have been published till Taksim-ul-Mulk. But they set an example of drowning and left. In 1949, the daily “Parcham-e-Naw” was published, but it proved to be a flag that could not be waved for long.

After independence, Urdu journalism started in 1949 with the dinner of “Nai Rah”. – Bhopal Newspapers include Al-Hamra, Haqiqat, New Bhopal, Khurshid, Afkar, Payam, and Aftab Daily Zikr. Then on September 12, 1978, the daily Aftab Jadeed Bhopal under the auspices of Bhaskar Group came out. Hamra, Bhopal Times, and Urdu Action are notable Punjab was the first newspaper to be published in Punjab during British rule. This newspaper was published in Lahore on January 1, 1874, under the editorship of Nisar Ali. It was owned by Ghulam Ali and Nisar Ali. It contained all four attributes.

It contained the usual ‘political and other news of the new world’. Most of the news was taken from other newspapers. This newspaper was discontinued in 1889. In 1903, Maulana Sanaullah Amritsar issued a weekly newspaper, Ahle Hadith, from Amritsar, which continued circulating for 44 years. This newspaper was closed during the Partition of India due to Maulana’s departure to Pakistan. Lala Jagat Narain was the first person after independence in Punjab to start a friendship with Varinder ji’s diary ‘Jai Hind’ but suddenly a property problem arose and he got the title of the daily    Qasr-ul-Ishaat Urdu. Meanwhile, the daily Pratap, edited by Varinder G, was launched from Jalandhar under the editorship of Urish G After that, the daily ‘Der Bharat’ (Editor Lala Dina Nath) was published. Similarly, in Jaipur, Gorakhpur, Srinagar, and other cities, several newspapers were published before and after independence, many of which are still in circulation Urdu language literary conferences have also been held in large numbers. After independence, there was a lot of literary debate, some of which withered away after a few days and some are still going away with full force from Taksim to Qabala, Urdu was the hub of many literary journals. Saqi was one of the most important of these popular journals. It started in Delhi and was owned by Shahid Ahmed Dehlavi, the grandson of Mudassir Deputy Nazir Ahmed but after the formation of Pakistan.

One of the oldest magazines of the time of independence is the official magazine which was started on June 10, 1942. It gained much popularity after independence. Its editor was the Lion of the Revolution, Josh Malihabadi. There are great histories of literary journals and their literary services which cannot be covered in detail the relationship between companionship and literature is one of bra and skirt. In Badi  Tadad there have been journalists who were also writers and poets and in Badi Tadad there have been poets and writers who were also journalists If it is said that eminent Urdu writers and poets gave practical guidance to Urdu Sahabat and released streams of literary spark on the dry land of newspapers and fed flowers of different genres, then it must also be said that Urdu Sahabat is its benefit. . -A- Like Umri, it is carrying out its duty to acquaint the people with ‘Adab was Adib’. On the contrary, if we go a little further and say this, it may not be a dispute that the caravan of Urdu literature went beyond the path of companionship and became popular among the people.

The role played by Urdu journalists and journalists in the Urdu language and literature is unforgettable. Literary forums have come out in large numbers before and are still coming out in the field of journalism, the names of Kabli Zikr are as follows: Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Maulana Abul Kalam. Azad, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Munshi Mehboob Alam, Allama Niaz Fateh Puri, Munshi Diya Narain Nigam, Dewan Singh Maftoon, Maulana when Urdu health was active in the war of independence, it also turned towards religious health and Urdu newspapers sounded the trumpet against the Christian machinery. Aqeedah has been fighting with other sects as well as internal religions. Christianity laid the foundation of religious literature in India. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the first Indian to launch a Brahmanical magazine in 1821 in response to the propaganda of the Christian machinery.

On the other hand, as soon as Urdu journalism started in North India, two clergymen from Mirzapur and Banaras issued bi-monthly letters to the well-wishers of India. In response, Muslims launched a multidisciplinary newspaper. While the Muslims of Delhi were at loggerheads with each other and used newspapers, magazines, and journals against each other urdu journalists have been the companions of protest. Protest against oppression, protest against injustice, protest against corruption, protest against privileged attitudes, and protest against social evils, but wrong and negative effects are near. Even today, Urdu newspapers are full of tags against terrorism and sectarianism. Some people complain that Urdu newspapers have nothing but honors and publicity. Such people have to understand the mood of Urdu journalism. His temperament has never been to humiliate the dictator but his temperament has become a blade against all kinds of injustice. Purpose protest is the distinguishing feature of Urdu newspapers. Urdu newspapers never advocated oppression. It has raised its voice against oppression and injustice before and is still doing so. At the same time, it is important to express the belief that no matter how bad the situation is, Urdu journalism has survived and will continue to survive.

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